(20) The word having ‘brother’, aha within the BT, has while doing so been enhanced, even though this means is additionally used in Turoyo. Hertevin has both ?aha and you can ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
At exactly the same time, external NENA, i’ve almost every other terminology: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) One to instead mysterious items that is attested in every NENA dialects except Sanandaj Christian (and therefore most likely only a spin gap regarding proof) is actually aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues that this word derives on options ql ‘to getting crooked’. Most of the dialects utilize the form aqla, except Koy Sanjaq aqla and you will Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Various other phrase chatted about because of the Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty-two, 134) try baxta ‘woman’, which has supplanted the brand new Syriac atta throughout NENA, yet not when you look at the Turoyo or Mandaic. So it phrase seems to result from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is interesting to notice that an unequal plural endures inside the numerous dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and Halabja inse.
(23) Surprise development mentioned from the Noldeke (1868, 59) was rxata, equal to Syriac rhat. The change out-of h so you’re able to x within one-word try included in all the NENA languages in which the verb is attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Various other unexpected invention ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, which will take the new variations zda?a great, zdaya, and you can zdala on individuals languages. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) bring a prospective derivation on the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Forms towards the infixed d are located in every brand new NENA languages the spot where the root are attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Only a few of the distinguishing attributes of NENA can be found either in Turoyo otherwise Mandaic
I do believe your above makes it obvious the NENA dialects show numerous unique characteristics that are discover none in the last attested different Aramaic neither on most other living dialects. These features range over the domain names regarding phonology, morphology, while the lexicon.
Especially, every dialects of migliori app incontri gamer NENA agree when you look at the standards 2, nine, 14, fifteen, sixteen, 21, and you may 22. All the languages where i’ve suggestions together with agree with requirements 20, 23, and you may 24.
Just about Halabja agree inside the standards 8 and you will eleven. Expectations 6 is located in every dialects except Halabja, Hertevin, and you can Sanandaj Religious.
Even after its inner departments, brand new NENA dialects mode a stunningly defined classification, split up obviously off one another Turoyo and you may Mandaic. The position of them languages away from NENA pale may be out of matter.
The degree to which provides try mutual round the NENA is very unbelievable when we take into account the immense differences between the various languages. The determine of almost every other languages on NENA might have been one another strong and you will greater, while the standard of shared intelligibility ranging from dialects could be extremely quick. Many mutual innovations argue highly to possess a familiar resource of the new NENA dialects, either in a single dialect or in a group of closely associated dialects. At the same time, we are able to discern a handful of important bundles from isoglosses which show new limitations off dialect teams.
a) New dialect off Halabja will not show particular very important designs which can be found by way of all remaining portion of the languages. It will not means good CCiC-le preterite of intransitive verbs (8), it’s zero b(it)- future marker (10), and contains zero 3rd individual one copula having step 1 (11). This really is the most important division anywhere between dialects away from NENA. It indicates the remaining dialects means a team through which innovations spread if you’re Halabja stayed unaffected by him or her.